Teaching English to speakers of other languages is both challenging and rewarding. More and more internationally minded people are choosing to teach English as a Second Language both in the United States and abroad. Whether in the United States, another English-speaking country or in countries around the world, the teacher of English as a second language will need to keep in mind the following simple guidelines:
Use non-verbal cues.
Facial expressions, hand gestures, and other non-verbal cues are a great way to overcome the language barrier. For example, when explaining the concept of tall, raise your hand high into the air. When explaining the concept of cold, shiver, and chatter your teeth.
Use visual aids.
Sometimes a picture is worth a thousand words, and this is particularly true when teaching English as a second language. Visual aids can be used to teach everything from vocabulary to prepositions. In addition to instructional advantages, visuals keep lessons interesting for the learners. If possible, get access to an overhead or slide projector for effective presentations.
Put students in groups.
If the teacher is constantly talking, learners of English as a second language will never get a chance to practice. Group work gives students an opportunity to practice the language. Groups work the best with 2 to 5 people; with any more people, not everyone gets a chance to participate. It is also a good idea to group students with different first languages together when possible.
Use bi-lingual materials.
If the teacher speaks the same language(s) as the students, the situation will be greatly simplified. But not many teachers have the luxury of speaking the same language(s) of his/her students. Bi-lingual materials can help a teacher of English as a second language to draw on a student’s native language without knowing it him/herself.
Repeat and rephrase.
Teachers of English as a second language need to repeat everything at least three times. They should also vary the wording of their remarks. A student may know one set of vocabulary but not another – even when the topic of discussion is the same. Even if the student does understand a concept upon the first explanation, he/she will still benefit from the repetition and variation of language. It will expose him/her to new words and phrases.
Our first instinct as teachers of English as a second language is to correct student language errors. Over-correction, however, can make students reluctant to use the language. If afraid of being corrected every time they speak, students will simply stop speaking – and therefore learning – the language. Of course, there are appropriate times to correct language mistakes. If a concept – for example the past tense – has been discussed at length in class, it is appropriate to correct students when they form the past tense improperly.
Create a safe atmosphere.
Learning English as a second language is not an easy thing emotionally. Students will feel self-conscious about their lack of English ability and will thus be reluctant to use the language. The job of the teacher of English as a second language is to create a safe and supportive environment, one in which the student will be comfortable experimenting with the language. That means that laughing at or putting down others can not be tolerated in any way, shape, or form.
Good luck with all of your teaching plans!